Porn Sites Slower Because Of Net Neutrality Beitrags-Navigation

Many Porn Sites Would Go Bust Under net neutrality, your ISP can't make one site load more slowly than another. Thanks to net neutrality, the video you watch​. With yesterday's FCC repeal of net neutrality protections, the adult internet as we know it is across the world asking governments to censor or block adult sites. Submission: First European provider to break Net Neutrality and put up a special page to users connecting from this ISP explaining that the site is slow because the ISP is making Never stand between a nerd and his porn. Net neutrality— the idea that Internet service providers (ISPs) should treat worry—Pornhub promises it won't actually load pages more slowly. Jede Pornosite enthält ein Blue Ribbon Band für FCC: "enforcing the net neutrality Four Free- health of the internet, advocates argue, because without them cable and telephone giants could block or slow down certain types of content, like.

Porn sites slower because of net neutrality

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They say that it is this simple but brilliant end-to-end aspect that has allowed the Internet to act as a powerful force for economic and social good.

This point of view was expressed by David S. Isenberg in his paper, "The Rise of the Stupid Network". He states that the vision of an intelligent network is being replaced by a new network philosophy and architecture in which the network is designed for always-on use, not intermittence and scarcity.

Rather than intelligence being designed into the network itself, the intelligence would be pushed out to the end-user's device; and the network would be designed simply to deliver bits without fancy network routing or smart number translation.

The data would be in control, telling the network where it should be sent. End-user devices would then be allowed to behave flexibly, as bits would essentially be free and there would be no assumption that the data is of a single data rate or data type.

Contrary to this idea, the research paper titled "End-to-end arguments in system design" by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark [] argues that network intelligence does not relieve end systems of the requirement to check inbound data for errors and to rate-limit the sender, nor for a wholesale removal of intelligence from the network core.

Opponents of net neutrality regulations include Internet service providers ISPs , broadband and telecommunications companies, computer hardware manufacturers, economists, and notable technologists.

Google once strongly advocated net-neutrality—like rules prior to , but their support for the rules has since diminished; the company however still remains "committed" to net neutrality.

The Wikimedia Foundation , which runs Wikipedia , told the Washington Post that it has a "complicated relationship" with net neutrality.

The concept is known as zero rating. Said Wikimedia Foundation officer Gayle Karen Young, "Partnering with telecom companies in the near term, it blurs the net neutrality line in those areas.

It fulfills our overall mission, though, which is providing free knowledge. A number of other opponents created Hands Off The Internet , [] a website created in to promote arguments against Internet regulation.

Robert Pepper , a senior managing director, global advanced technology policy, at Cisco Systems , and former FCC chief of policy development, says: "The supporters of net neutrality regulation believe that more rules are necessary.

In their view, without greater regulation, service providers might parcel out bandwidth or services, creating a bifurcated world in which the wealthy enjoy first-class Internet access, while everyone else is left with slow connections and degraded content.

That scenario, however, is a false paradigm. Such an all-or-nothing world doesn't exist today, nor will it exist in the future. Without additional regulation, service providers are likely to continue doing what they are doing.

They will continue to offer a variety of broadband service plans at a variety of price points to suit every type of consumer". Farber has written and spoken strongly in favor of continued research and development on core Internet protocols.

He joined academic colleagues Michael Katz, Christopher Yoo , and Gerald Faulhaber in an op-ed for the Washington Post strongly critical of network neutrality, essentially stating that while the Internet is in need of remodeling, congressional action aimed at protecting the best parts of the current Internet could interfere with efforts to build a replacement.

According to a letter to FCC commissioners and key congressional leaders sent by 60 major ISP technology suppliers including IBM, Intel, Qualcomm, and Cisco, Title II regulation of the Internet "means that instead of billions of broadband investment driving other sectors of the economy forward, any reduction in this spending will stifle growth across the entire economy.

This is not idle speculation or fear mongering Title II is going to lead to a slowdown, if not a hold, in broadband build out, because if you don't know that you can recover on your investment, you won't make it.

Opponents say that net neutrality would make it more difficult for Internet service providers ISPs and other network operators to recoup their investments in broadband networks.

Thorne and other ISPs have accused Google and Skype of freeloading or free riding for using a network of lines and cables the phone company spent billions of dollars to build.

You need to know how you're going to get a return on that investment. If you have these pure net neutrality rules where you can never charge a company like Netflix anything, you're not ever going to get a return on continued network investment — which means you'll stop investing in the network.

And I would not want to be sitting here 10 or 20 years from now with the same broadband speeds we're getting today. Proponents of net neutrality regulations say network operators have continued to under-invest in infrastructure.

The White House reported in June that U. In Indonesia, there is a very high number of Internet connections that are subjected to exclusive deals between the ISP and the building owner, and changing this dynamic could unlock much more consumer choice and higher speeds.

Broadband speeds in the United States, both wired and wireless, are significantly faster than those in Europe. Broadband investment in the United States is several multiples that of Europe.

And broadband's reach is much wider in the United States, despite its much lower population density. VOIP pioneer Jeff Pulver states that the uncertainty of the FCC imposing Title II, which experts said would create regulatory restrictions on using the Internet to transmit a voice call, was the "single greatest impediment to innovation" for a decade.

A paper on net neutrality by Nobel Prize economist Gary Becker and his colleagues stated that "there is significant and growing competition among broadband access providers and that few significant competitive problems have been observed to date, suggesting that there is no compelling competitive rationale for such regulation".

Internet traffic roughly tripled between and At the same time, prices for broadband Internet access services have fallen sharply.

The commissioners argued that the stricter speed guidelines painted the broadband industry as less competitive, justifying the FCC's moves with Title II net neutrality regulations.

A report by the Progressive Policy Institute in June argues that nearly every American can choose from at least broadband Internet service providers, despite claims that there are only a "small number" of broadband providers.

Further, three of the four national wireless companies report that they offer 4G LTE to — million Americans, with the fourth T-Mobile sitting at million and counting.

FCC commissioner Ajit Pai states that the FCC completely brushes away the concerns of smaller competitors who are going to be subject to various taxes, such as state property taxes and general receipts taxes.

He also noted that 24 of the country's smallest ISPs, each with fewer than 1, residential broadband customers, wrote to the FCC stating that Title II "will badly strain our limited resources" because they "have no in-house attorneys and no budget line items for outside counsel".

Further, another 43 municipal broadband providers told the FCC that Title II "will trigger consequences beyond the Commission's control and risk serious harm to our ability to fund and deploy broadband without bringing any concrete benefit for consumers or edge providers that the market is not already proving today without the aid of any additional regulation".

According to a Wired magazine article by TechFreedom's Berin Szoka, Matthew Starr, and Jon Henke, local governments and public utilities impose the most significant barriers to entry for more cable broadband competition: "While popular arguments focus on supposed 'monopolists' such as big cable companies, it's government that's really to blame.

Kickbacks may include municipal requirements for ISPs such as building out service where it is not demanded, donating equipment, and delivering free broadband to government buildings.

According to a research article from MIS Quarterly , the authors stated their findings subvert some of the expectations of how ISPs and CPs act regarding net neutrality laws.

The paper shows that even if an ISP is under restrictions, it still has the opportunity and the incentive to act as a gatekeeper over CPs by enforcing priority delivery of content.

Those in favor of forms of non-neutral tiered Internet access argue that the Internet is already not a level playing field, that large companies achieve a performance advantage over smaller competitors by providing more and better-quality servers and buying high-bandwidth services.

Should scrapping of net neutrality regulations precipitate a price drop for lower levels of access, or access to only certain protocols, for instance, such would make Internet usage more adaptable to the needs of those individuals and corporations who specifically seek differentiated tiers of service.

Network expert [] Richard Bennett has written, "A richly funded Web site, which delivers data faster than its competitors to the front porches of the Internet service providers, wants it delivered the rest of the way on an equal basis.

This system, which Google calls broadband neutrality, actually preserves a more fundamental inequality.

Under favorable circumstances, "the increase would be exactly zero". FCC spokesperson Kim Hart said that the ruling "does not raise taxes or fees.

According to PayPal founder and Facebook investor Peter Thiel in , "Net neutrality has not been necessary to date.

I don't see any reason why it's suddenly become important, when the Internet has functioned quite well for the past 15 years without it.

Government attempts to regulate technology have been extraordinarily counterproductive in the past. FCC Commissioner Ajit Pai , who was one of the two commissioners who opposed the net neutrality proposal, criticized the FCC's ruling on Internet neutrality, stating that the perceived threats from ISPs to deceive consumers, degrade content, or disfavor the content that they dislike are non-existent: "The evidence of these continuing threats?

There is none; it's all anecdote, hypothesis, and hysteria. Comcast capped BitTorrent traffic to ease upload congestion eight years ago.

Apple introduced Facetime over Wi-Fi first, cellular networks later. Examples this picayune and stale aren't enough to tell a coherent story about net neutrality.

The bogeyman never had it so easy. There is not a shred of evidence that any aspect of this structure is necessary. The D. Circuit called the prior, scaled-down version a 'prophylactic' approach.

I call it guilt by imagination. Quite the opposite. The Internet is an unparalleled success story.

It is a free, open and thriving platform. Opponents argue that net neutrality regulations prevent service providers from providing more affordable Internet access to those who can't afford it.

The Wikimedia Foundation , which runs Wikipedia , created Wikipedia Zero to provide Wikipedia free-of-charge on mobile phones to low-income users, especially those in developing countries.

However, the practice violates net neutrality rules as traffic would have to be treated equally regardless of the users' ability to pay.

Net neutrality rules would prevent traffic from being allocated to the most needed users, according to Internet Pioneer David Farber. According to Farber, "When traffic surges beyond the ability of the network to carry it, something is going to be delayed.

When choosing what gets delayed, it makes sense to allow a network to favor traffic from, say, a patient's heart monitor over traffic delivering a music download.

It also makes sense to allow network operators to restrict traffic that is downright harmful, such as viruses, worms and spam. Tim Wu , though a proponent of network neutrality, claims that the current Internet is not neutral as its implementation of best effort generally favors file transfer and other non-time-sensitive traffic over real-time communications.

Therefore, for a network to remain significantly non-neutral requires either that the customers not be concerned about the particular non-neutralities or the customers not have any meaningful choice of providers, otherwise they would presumably switch to another provider with fewer restrictions.

While the network neutrality debate continues, network providers often enter into peering arrangements among themselves.

These agreements often stipulate how certain information flows should be treated. In addition, network providers often implement various policies such as blocking of port 25 to prevent insecure systems from serving as spam relays, or other ports commonly used by decentralized music search applications implementing peer-to-peer networking models.

They also present terms of service that often include rules about the use of certain applications as part of their contracts with users.

However, the effect of peering arrangements among network providers are only local to the peers that enter into the arrangements and cannot affect traffic flow outside their scope.

Jon Peha from Carnegie Mellon University believes it is important to create policies that protect users from harmful traffic discrimination while allowing beneficial discrimination.

Peha discusses the technologies that enable traffic discrimination, examples of different types of discrimination, and potential impacts of regulation.

But it's okay to discriminate across different types. So you could prioritize voice over video. And there is general agreement with Verizon and Google on that issue.

Other applications need broadband streaming capability in order to deliver real-time video. Others don't really care as long as they can get the bits there, like e-mail or file transfers and things like that.

But it should not be the case that the supplier of the access to the network mediates this on a competitive basis, but you may still have different kinds of service depending on what the requirements are for the different applications.

Content caching is the process by which frequently accessed contents are temporarily stored in strategic network positions e. For example, caching is commonly used by ISPs to reduce network congestion and results in a superior quality of experience QoE perceived by the final users.

Since the storage available in cache servers is limited, caching involves a process of selection of the contents worth storing. Several cache algorithms have been designed to perform this process which, in general, leads to store the most popular contents.

The cached contents are retrieved at a higher QoE e. For example, the technical writer Adam Marcus states that "accessing content from edge servers may be a bit faster for users, but nobody is being discriminated against and most content on the Internet is not latency-sensitive".

Even more so, the legitimacy of caching has never been put in doubt by opponents of Net Neutrality. On the contrary, the complexity of caching operations e.

In the spirit of a general deregulation with regard to caching, there is not a rule that specifies how this process can be carried out in a non-discriminatory way.

Nevertheless, the scientific literature considers the issue of caching as a potentially discriminatory process and provides possible guidelines to address it.

In fact, CDNs are employed to allow a scalable and highly-efficient content delivery rather than to grant access to the Internet. Therefore, although this may be regarded as a form of paid traffic prioritization, CDNs are not subject of Net Neutrality regulations and are rarely included in the debate.

Despite of this, it is argued by some that the Internet ecosystem has changed to such an extent that all the players involved in the content delivery can distort competition and should be therefore also included in the discussion around Net Neutrality.

Internet routers forward packets according to the diverse peering and transport agreements that exist between network operators.

There is no single, uniform method of interconnecting networks using IP , and not all networks that use IP are part of the Internet.

IPTV networks are isolated from the Internet and are therefore not covered by network neutrality agreements. The IP datagram includes a 3-bit wide Precedence field and a larger DiffServ Code Point DSCP that are used to request a level of service, consistent with the notion that protocols in a layered architecture offer services through Service Access Points.

This field is sometimes ignored, especially if it requests a level of service outside the originating network's contract with the receiving network.

It is commonly used in private networks, especially those including Wi-Fi networks where priority is enforced.

Router manufacturers now sell routers that have logic enabling them to route traffic for various Classes of Service at "wire-speed".

Quality of service is sometimes taken as a measurement through certain tools to test a user's connection quality, such as Network Diagnostic Tools NDT and services on speedtest.

However, there are very few examples of such measurements being used in any significant way by NRAs, or in network policy for that matter.

Often, these tools are used not because they fail at recording the results they are meant to record, but because said measurements are inflexible and difficult to exploit for any significant purpose.

According to Ioannis Koukoutsidis, the problems with the current tools used to measure QoS stem from a lack of a standard detection methodology, a need to be able to detect various methods in which an ISP might violate Net Neutrality, and the inability to test an average measurement for a specific population of users.

With the emergence of multimedia, VoIP , IPTV, and other applications that benefit from low latency, various attempts to address the inability of some private networks to limit latency have arisen, including the proposition of offering tiered service levels that would shape Internet transmissions at the network layer based on application type.

These efforts are ongoing, and are starting to yield results as wholesale Internet transport providers begin to amend service agreements to include service levels.

Advocates of net neutrality have proposed several methods to implement a net neutral Internet that includes a notion of quality-of-service:.

Founder of Epic Privacy Browser , Alok Bhardwaj, has argued that net neutrality preservation through legislation is consistent with implementing quality of service protocols.

He argues legislation should ban the charging of fees for any quality of service, which would both allow networks to implement quality of service as well as remove any incentive to abuse net neutrality ideas.

He argues that since implementing quality of service does not require any additional costs versus a non-QoS network, there is no reason implementing quality of service should entail any additional fees.

There are also some discrepancies in how wireless networks affect the implementation of net neutrality policy, some of which are noted in the studies of Christopher Yoo.

In one research article, he claimed that " Broadband Internet access has most often been sold to users based on Excess Information Rate or maximum available bandwidth.

If Internet service providers ISPs can provide varying levels of service to websites at various prices, this may be a way to manage the costs of unused capacity by selling surplus bandwidth or "leverage price discrimination to recoup costs of ' consumer surplus ' ".

However, purchasers of connectivity on the basis of Committed Information Rate or guaranteed bandwidth capacity must expect the capacity they purchase in order to meet their communications requirements.

Various studies have sought to provide network providers the necessary formulas for adequately pricing such a tiered service for their customer base.

But while network neutrality is primarily focused on protocol based provisioning, most of the pricing models are based on bandwidth restrictions.

Many Economists have analyzed Net Neutrality to compare various hypothetical pricing models. For instance, economic professors Michael L.

Katz and Benjamin E. In this paper they compared the single service economic equilibrium to the multi-service economic equilibriums under Net Neutrality.

On 12 July , an event called the Day of Action was held to advocate net neutrality in the United States in response to Ajit Pai's plans to remove government policies that upheld net neutrality.

Several websites participated in this event, including ones such as Amazon , Netflix , Google , and several other just as well-known websites.

The gathering was called "the largest online protest in history. Reddit made a pop-up message that loads slowly to illustrate the effect of removing net neutrality.

Other websites also put up some less obvious notifications, such as Amazon, who put up a hard-to-notice link, or Google, who put up policy blog post as opposed to a more obvious message.

A poll conducted by Mozilla showed strong support for net neutrality across US political parties. Net neutrality supporters had also made several comments on the FCC website opposing plans to remove net neutrality, especially after a segment by John Oliver regarding this topic was aired on his show Last Week Tonight.

At the end of August, the FCC released more than 13, pages of net neutrality complaints filed by consumers , yet it was released one day before the deadline for the public to comment on Ajit Pai's proposal to remove net neutrality.

It has been implied that the FCC ignored evidence against their proposal in order to remove the protection laws faster.

It has also been noted that nowhere was it mentioned how FCC made any attempt to resolve the complaints made. Regardless, Ajit Pai's proposal has drawn more than 22 million comments, though a large amount were spam.

However, there were 1. The Congressional Review Act paperwork was filed on 9 May , which allowed the Senate to vote on the permanence of the new net neutrality rules proposed by the FCC.

A digital divide is referred to as the difference between those who have access to internet and those using digital technologies based on urban against rural areas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 October An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet.

Information infrastructure. Book Index Outline. See also: IP address blocking and Deep packet inspection.

Main article: Net neutrality law. Main article: Net neutrality by country. Main article: Net neutrality in India. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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Retrieved 28 February Business Insider. Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 6 November Archived from the original PDF on 17 December And Pai has said that the internet should not be subject to old rules meant to regulate phone companies.

Big corporations have supported Pai's stance on net neutrality. However, internet giants such as Facebook and Google have cited that the rules are not a hindrance to their business.

Democrats have adamantly opposed the elimination of net neutrality. Senator Bill Nelson of Florida, who is also part of the Senate Commerce Committee, said in a statement that ending net neutrality "amounts to the dereliction of duty at a time when guaranteeing an open internet is more critical than ever," The Hill reported.

In April, more than 1, small businesses, investors and other startups across the U. According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, more than video creators; over international businesses and organizations; 52 racial justice, civil rights, and human rights organizations; and , libraries across the United States have rejected the FCC's steps to get rid of net neutrality rules.

Finally, the porn industry also opposes Pai. Other adult entertainment websites such as Kink, ManyVids and XHamster have joined calls to support net neutrality and its importance for their "business and free speech.

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Author Nicholas Carr [] and other social commentators [] [] have written about the habituation phenomenon by stating that a faster flow of information on the Internet can make people less patient.

Net neutrality advocates argue that allowing cable companies the right to demand a toll to guarantee quality or premium delivery would create an exploitative business model based on the ISPs position as gatekeepers.

They claim it is a preservation of the way the Internet has always operated, where the quality of websites and services determined whether they succeeded or failed, rather than deals with ISPs.

McChesney argue that eliminating net neutrality would lead to the Internet resembling the world of cable TV, so that access to and distribution of content would be managed by a handful of massive, near monopolistic companies, though there are multiple service providers in each region.

These companies would then control what is seen as well as how much it costs to see it. Speedy and secure Internet use for such industries as healthcare, finance, retailing, and gambling could be subject to large fees charged by these companies.

They further explain that a majority of the great innovators in the history of the Internet started with little capital in their garages, inspired by great ideas.

This was possible because the protections of net neutrality ensured limited control by owners of the networks, maximal competition in this space, and permitted innovators from outside access to the network.

Internet content was guaranteed a free and highly competitive space by the existence of net neutrality. Net neutrality advocates have sponsored legislation claiming that authorizing incumbent network providers to override transport and application layer separation on the Internet would signal the decline of fundamental Internet standards and international consensus authority.

Further, the legislation asserts that bit-shaping the transport of application data will undermine the transport layer's designed flexibility.

Alok Bhardwaj, founder of Epic Privacy Browser , argues that any violations to network neutrality, realistically speaking, will not involve genuine investment but rather payoffs for unnecessary and dubious services.

He believes that it is unlikely that new investment will be made to lay special networks for particular websites to reach end-users faster. Rather, he believes that non-net neutrality will involve leveraging quality of service to extract remuneration from websites that want to avoid being slowed down.

These payments were described by Netflix founder Reed Hastings as "an arbitrary tax" and "arbitrary interconnection tolls".

Some advocates say network neutrality is needed in order to maintain the end-to-end principle. According to Lawrence Lessig and Robert W. McChesney , all content must be treated the same and must move at the same speed in order for net neutrality to be true.

They say that it is this simple but brilliant end-to-end aspect that has allowed the Internet to act as a powerful force for economic and social good.

This point of view was expressed by David S. Isenberg in his paper, "The Rise of the Stupid Network". He states that the vision of an intelligent network is being replaced by a new network philosophy and architecture in which the network is designed for always-on use, not intermittence and scarcity.

Rather than intelligence being designed into the network itself, the intelligence would be pushed out to the end-user's device; and the network would be designed simply to deliver bits without fancy network routing or smart number translation.

The data would be in control, telling the network where it should be sent. End-user devices would then be allowed to behave flexibly, as bits would essentially be free and there would be no assumption that the data is of a single data rate or data type.

Contrary to this idea, the research paper titled "End-to-end arguments in system design" by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark [] argues that network intelligence does not relieve end systems of the requirement to check inbound data for errors and to rate-limit the sender, nor for a wholesale removal of intelligence from the network core.

Opponents of net neutrality regulations include Internet service providers ISPs , broadband and telecommunications companies, computer hardware manufacturers, economists, and notable technologists.

Google once strongly advocated net-neutrality—like rules prior to , but their support for the rules has since diminished; the company however still remains "committed" to net neutrality.

The Wikimedia Foundation , which runs Wikipedia , told the Washington Post that it has a "complicated relationship" with net neutrality.

The concept is known as zero rating. Said Wikimedia Foundation officer Gayle Karen Young, "Partnering with telecom companies in the near term, it blurs the net neutrality line in those areas.

It fulfills our overall mission, though, which is providing free knowledge. A number of other opponents created Hands Off The Internet , [] a website created in to promote arguments against Internet regulation.

Robert Pepper , a senior managing director, global advanced technology policy, at Cisco Systems , and former FCC chief of policy development, says: "The supporters of net neutrality regulation believe that more rules are necessary.

In their view, without greater regulation, service providers might parcel out bandwidth or services, creating a bifurcated world in which the wealthy enjoy first-class Internet access, while everyone else is left with slow connections and degraded content.

That scenario, however, is a false paradigm. Such an all-or-nothing world doesn't exist today, nor will it exist in the future.

Without additional regulation, service providers are likely to continue doing what they are doing. They will continue to offer a variety of broadband service plans at a variety of price points to suit every type of consumer".

Farber has written and spoken strongly in favor of continued research and development on core Internet protocols. He joined academic colleagues Michael Katz, Christopher Yoo , and Gerald Faulhaber in an op-ed for the Washington Post strongly critical of network neutrality, essentially stating that while the Internet is in need of remodeling, congressional action aimed at protecting the best parts of the current Internet could interfere with efforts to build a replacement.

According to a letter to FCC commissioners and key congressional leaders sent by 60 major ISP technology suppliers including IBM, Intel, Qualcomm, and Cisco, Title II regulation of the Internet "means that instead of billions of broadband investment driving other sectors of the economy forward, any reduction in this spending will stifle growth across the entire economy.

This is not idle speculation or fear mongering Title II is going to lead to a slowdown, if not a hold, in broadband build out, because if you don't know that you can recover on your investment, you won't make it.

Opponents say that net neutrality would make it more difficult for Internet service providers ISPs and other network operators to recoup their investments in broadband networks.

Thorne and other ISPs have accused Google and Skype of freeloading or free riding for using a network of lines and cables the phone company spent billions of dollars to build.

You need to know how you're going to get a return on that investment. If you have these pure net neutrality rules where you can never charge a company like Netflix anything, you're not ever going to get a return on continued network investment — which means you'll stop investing in the network.

And I would not want to be sitting here 10 or 20 years from now with the same broadband speeds we're getting today. Proponents of net neutrality regulations say network operators have continued to under-invest in infrastructure.

The White House reported in June that U. In Indonesia, there is a very high number of Internet connections that are subjected to exclusive deals between the ISP and the building owner, and changing this dynamic could unlock much more consumer choice and higher speeds.

Broadband speeds in the United States, both wired and wireless, are significantly faster than those in Europe. Broadband investment in the United States is several multiples that of Europe.

And broadband's reach is much wider in the United States, despite its much lower population density. VOIP pioneer Jeff Pulver states that the uncertainty of the FCC imposing Title II, which experts said would create regulatory restrictions on using the Internet to transmit a voice call, was the "single greatest impediment to innovation" for a decade.

A paper on net neutrality by Nobel Prize economist Gary Becker and his colleagues stated that "there is significant and growing competition among broadband access providers and that few significant competitive problems have been observed to date, suggesting that there is no compelling competitive rationale for such regulation".

Internet traffic roughly tripled between and At the same time, prices for broadband Internet access services have fallen sharply.

The commissioners argued that the stricter speed guidelines painted the broadband industry as less competitive, justifying the FCC's moves with Title II net neutrality regulations.

A report by the Progressive Policy Institute in June argues that nearly every American can choose from at least broadband Internet service providers, despite claims that there are only a "small number" of broadband providers.

Further, three of the four national wireless companies report that they offer 4G LTE to — million Americans, with the fourth T-Mobile sitting at million and counting.

FCC commissioner Ajit Pai states that the FCC completely brushes away the concerns of smaller competitors who are going to be subject to various taxes, such as state property taxes and general receipts taxes.

He also noted that 24 of the country's smallest ISPs, each with fewer than 1, residential broadband customers, wrote to the FCC stating that Title II "will badly strain our limited resources" because they "have no in-house attorneys and no budget line items for outside counsel".

Further, another 43 municipal broadband providers told the FCC that Title II "will trigger consequences beyond the Commission's control and risk serious harm to our ability to fund and deploy broadband without bringing any concrete benefit for consumers or edge providers that the market is not already proving today without the aid of any additional regulation".

According to a Wired magazine article by TechFreedom's Berin Szoka, Matthew Starr, and Jon Henke, local governments and public utilities impose the most significant barriers to entry for more cable broadband competition: "While popular arguments focus on supposed 'monopolists' such as big cable companies, it's government that's really to blame.

Kickbacks may include municipal requirements for ISPs such as building out service where it is not demanded, donating equipment, and delivering free broadband to government buildings.

According to a research article from MIS Quarterly , the authors stated their findings subvert some of the expectations of how ISPs and CPs act regarding net neutrality laws.

The paper shows that even if an ISP is under restrictions, it still has the opportunity and the incentive to act as a gatekeeper over CPs by enforcing priority delivery of content.

Those in favor of forms of non-neutral tiered Internet access argue that the Internet is already not a level playing field, that large companies achieve a performance advantage over smaller competitors by providing more and better-quality servers and buying high-bandwidth services.

Should scrapping of net neutrality regulations precipitate a price drop for lower levels of access, or access to only certain protocols, for instance, such would make Internet usage more adaptable to the needs of those individuals and corporations who specifically seek differentiated tiers of service.

Network expert [] Richard Bennett has written, "A richly funded Web site, which delivers data faster than its competitors to the front porches of the Internet service providers, wants it delivered the rest of the way on an equal basis.

This system, which Google calls broadband neutrality, actually preserves a more fundamental inequality. Under favorable circumstances, "the increase would be exactly zero".

FCC spokesperson Kim Hart said that the ruling "does not raise taxes or fees. According to PayPal founder and Facebook investor Peter Thiel in , "Net neutrality has not been necessary to date.

I don't see any reason why it's suddenly become important, when the Internet has functioned quite well for the past 15 years without it.

Government attempts to regulate technology have been extraordinarily counterproductive in the past. FCC Commissioner Ajit Pai , who was one of the two commissioners who opposed the net neutrality proposal, criticized the FCC's ruling on Internet neutrality, stating that the perceived threats from ISPs to deceive consumers, degrade content, or disfavor the content that they dislike are non-existent: "The evidence of these continuing threats?

There is none; it's all anecdote, hypothesis, and hysteria. Comcast capped BitTorrent traffic to ease upload congestion eight years ago.

Apple introduced Facetime over Wi-Fi first, cellular networks later. Examples this picayune and stale aren't enough to tell a coherent story about net neutrality.

The bogeyman never had it so easy. There is not a shred of evidence that any aspect of this structure is necessary. The D. Circuit called the prior, scaled-down version a 'prophylactic' approach.

I call it guilt by imagination. Quite the opposite. The Internet is an unparalleled success story.

It is a free, open and thriving platform. Opponents argue that net neutrality regulations prevent service providers from providing more affordable Internet access to those who can't afford it.

The Wikimedia Foundation , which runs Wikipedia , created Wikipedia Zero to provide Wikipedia free-of-charge on mobile phones to low-income users, especially those in developing countries.

However, the practice violates net neutrality rules as traffic would have to be treated equally regardless of the users' ability to pay.

Net neutrality rules would prevent traffic from being allocated to the most needed users, according to Internet Pioneer David Farber.

According to Farber, "When traffic surges beyond the ability of the network to carry it, something is going to be delayed. When choosing what gets delayed, it makes sense to allow a network to favor traffic from, say, a patient's heart monitor over traffic delivering a music download.

It also makes sense to allow network operators to restrict traffic that is downright harmful, such as viruses, worms and spam. Tim Wu , though a proponent of network neutrality, claims that the current Internet is not neutral as its implementation of best effort generally favors file transfer and other non-time-sensitive traffic over real-time communications.

Therefore, for a network to remain significantly non-neutral requires either that the customers not be concerned about the particular non-neutralities or the customers not have any meaningful choice of providers, otherwise they would presumably switch to another provider with fewer restrictions.

While the network neutrality debate continues, network providers often enter into peering arrangements among themselves.

These agreements often stipulate how certain information flows should be treated. In addition, network providers often implement various policies such as blocking of port 25 to prevent insecure systems from serving as spam relays, or other ports commonly used by decentralized music search applications implementing peer-to-peer networking models.

They also present terms of service that often include rules about the use of certain applications as part of their contracts with users.

However, the effect of peering arrangements among network providers are only local to the peers that enter into the arrangements and cannot affect traffic flow outside their scope.

Jon Peha from Carnegie Mellon University believes it is important to create policies that protect users from harmful traffic discrimination while allowing beneficial discrimination.

Peha discusses the technologies that enable traffic discrimination, examples of different types of discrimination, and potential impacts of regulation.

But it's okay to discriminate across different types. So you could prioritize voice over video. And there is general agreement with Verizon and Google on that issue.

Other applications need broadband streaming capability in order to deliver real-time video. Others don't really care as long as they can get the bits there, like e-mail or file transfers and things like that.

But it should not be the case that the supplier of the access to the network mediates this on a competitive basis, but you may still have different kinds of service depending on what the requirements are for the different applications.

Content caching is the process by which frequently accessed contents are temporarily stored in strategic network positions e.

For example, caching is commonly used by ISPs to reduce network congestion and results in a superior quality of experience QoE perceived by the final users.

Since the storage available in cache servers is limited, caching involves a process of selection of the contents worth storing.

Several cache algorithms have been designed to perform this process which, in general, leads to store the most popular contents.

The cached contents are retrieved at a higher QoE e. For example, the technical writer Adam Marcus states that "accessing content from edge servers may be a bit faster for users, but nobody is being discriminated against and most content on the Internet is not latency-sensitive".

Even more so, the legitimacy of caching has never been put in doubt by opponents of Net Neutrality. On the contrary, the complexity of caching operations e.

In the spirit of a general deregulation with regard to caching, there is not a rule that specifies how this process can be carried out in a non-discriminatory way.

Nevertheless, the scientific literature considers the issue of caching as a potentially discriminatory process and provides possible guidelines to address it.

In fact, CDNs are employed to allow a scalable and highly-efficient content delivery rather than to grant access to the Internet.

Therefore, although this may be regarded as a form of paid traffic prioritization, CDNs are not subject of Net Neutrality regulations and are rarely included in the debate.

Despite of this, it is argued by some that the Internet ecosystem has changed to such an extent that all the players involved in the content delivery can distort competition and should be therefore also included in the discussion around Net Neutrality.

Internet routers forward packets according to the diverse peering and transport agreements that exist between network operators.

There is no single, uniform method of interconnecting networks using IP , and not all networks that use IP are part of the Internet. IPTV networks are isolated from the Internet and are therefore not covered by network neutrality agreements.

The IP datagram includes a 3-bit wide Precedence field and a larger DiffServ Code Point DSCP that are used to request a level of service, consistent with the notion that protocols in a layered architecture offer services through Service Access Points.

This field is sometimes ignored, especially if it requests a level of service outside the originating network's contract with the receiving network.

It is commonly used in private networks, especially those including Wi-Fi networks where priority is enforced. Router manufacturers now sell routers that have logic enabling them to route traffic for various Classes of Service at "wire-speed".

Quality of service is sometimes taken as a measurement through certain tools to test a user's connection quality, such as Network Diagnostic Tools NDT and services on speedtest.

However, there are very few examples of such measurements being used in any significant way by NRAs, or in network policy for that matter. Often, these tools are used not because they fail at recording the results they are meant to record, but because said measurements are inflexible and difficult to exploit for any significant purpose.

According to Ioannis Koukoutsidis, the problems with the current tools used to measure QoS stem from a lack of a standard detection methodology, a need to be able to detect various methods in which an ISP might violate Net Neutrality, and the inability to test an average measurement for a specific population of users.

With the emergence of multimedia, VoIP , IPTV, and other applications that benefit from low latency, various attempts to address the inability of some private networks to limit latency have arisen, including the proposition of offering tiered service levels that would shape Internet transmissions at the network layer based on application type.

These efforts are ongoing, and are starting to yield results as wholesale Internet transport providers begin to amend service agreements to include service levels.

Advocates of net neutrality have proposed several methods to implement a net neutral Internet that includes a notion of quality-of-service:.

Founder of Epic Privacy Browser , Alok Bhardwaj, has argued that net neutrality preservation through legislation is consistent with implementing quality of service protocols.

He argues legislation should ban the charging of fees for any quality of service, which would both allow networks to implement quality of service as well as remove any incentive to abuse net neutrality ideas.

He argues that since implementing quality of service does not require any additional costs versus a non-QoS network, there is no reason implementing quality of service should entail any additional fees.

There are also some discrepancies in how wireless networks affect the implementation of net neutrality policy, some of which are noted in the studies of Christopher Yoo.

In one research article, he claimed that " Broadband Internet access has most often been sold to users based on Excess Information Rate or maximum available bandwidth.

If Internet service providers ISPs can provide varying levels of service to websites at various prices, this may be a way to manage the costs of unused capacity by selling surplus bandwidth or "leverage price discrimination to recoup costs of ' consumer surplus ' ".

However, purchasers of connectivity on the basis of Committed Information Rate or guaranteed bandwidth capacity must expect the capacity they purchase in order to meet their communications requirements.

Various studies have sought to provide network providers the necessary formulas for adequately pricing such a tiered service for their customer base.

But while network neutrality is primarily focused on protocol based provisioning, most of the pricing models are based on bandwidth restrictions.

Many Economists have analyzed Net Neutrality to compare various hypothetical pricing models. For instance, economic professors Michael L.

Katz and Benjamin E. In this paper they compared the single service economic equilibrium to the multi-service economic equilibriums under Net Neutrality.

On 12 July , an event called the Day of Action was held to advocate net neutrality in the United States in response to Ajit Pai's plans to remove government policies that upheld net neutrality.

Several websites participated in this event, including ones such as Amazon , Netflix , Google , and several other just as well-known websites. The gathering was called "the largest online protest in history.

Reddit made a pop-up message that loads slowly to illustrate the effect of removing net neutrality. Other websites also put up some less obvious notifications, such as Amazon, who put up a hard-to-notice link, or Google, who put up policy blog post as opposed to a more obvious message.

A poll conducted by Mozilla showed strong support for net neutrality across US political parties. Net neutrality supporters had also made several comments on the FCC website opposing plans to remove net neutrality, especially after a segment by John Oliver regarding this topic was aired on his show Last Week Tonight.

At the end of August, the FCC released more than 13, pages of net neutrality complaints filed by consumers , yet it was released one day before the deadline for the public to comment on Ajit Pai's proposal to remove net neutrality.

It has been implied that the FCC ignored evidence against their proposal in order to remove the protection laws faster.

It has also been noted that nowhere was it mentioned how FCC made any attempt to resolve the complaints made.

Regardless, Ajit Pai's proposal has drawn more than 22 million comments, though a large amount were spam. However, there were 1. The Congressional Review Act paperwork was filed on 9 May , which allowed the Senate to vote on the permanence of the new net neutrality rules proposed by the FCC.

A digital divide is referred to as the difference between those who have access to internet and those using digital technologies based on urban against rural areas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 October An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet.

Information infrastructure. Book Index Outline. See also: IP address blocking and Deep packet inspection. Main article: Net neutrality law.

Main article: Net neutrality by country. Main article: Net neutrality in India. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Data discrimination. Main article: Quality of service.

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Retrieved 31 August The China Quarterly. Archived from the original on 3 September In fact, Pai told PBS in April that the rules are "too burdensome" and cited evidence that investment in infrastructure has "gone down" since the adoption of the rules.

And Pai has said that the internet should not be subject to old rules meant to regulate phone companies.

Big corporations have supported Pai's stance on net neutrality. However, internet giants such as Facebook and Google have cited that the rules are not a hindrance to their business.

Democrats have adamantly opposed the elimination of net neutrality. Senator Bill Nelson of Florida, who is also part of the Senate Commerce Committee, said in a statement that ending net neutrality "amounts to the dereliction of duty at a time when guaranteeing an open internet is more critical than ever," The Hill reported.

In April, more than 1, small businesses, investors and other startups across the U. According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, more than video creators; over international businesses and organizations; 52 racial justice, civil rights, and human rights organizations; and , libraries across the United States have rejected the FCC's steps to get rid of net neutrality rules.

Finally, the porn industry also opposes Pai.

In fact, Pai told PBS in April that the Streched pussy are "too burdensome" and cited evidence that investment in infrastructure has "gone down" since the adoption of the rules. In a research study conducted by Cam4chat Research, online shoppers expected the web pages they Apfeltitten to download content instantly. Retrieved 2 July And broadband's reach is much wider in the United States, despite its much Worldwide christian dating population density. Internet routers forward packets according to the diverse peering and transport agreements that exist between network operators.

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