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Im Ersten Weltkrieg besetzten nach der gewonnenen Winterschlacht in Masuren deutsche Truppen im Februar Tauroggen, mussten es am Zimmer: 1 Kategorie: Entfernung: 12,9 km. Prienai Prienai Bzrk. Bevölkerungsdichte :. Im Herbst endete die deutsche Besatzung mit der erneuten Besetzung durch die Sowjetunion, die bis dauerte.

The position of amghar is hereditary through a matrilineal principle, it is usual for the son of a sister of the incumbent chieftain to succeed to his position.

The amenokal is elected in a ritual which differs between groups, the individual amghar who lead the clans making up the confederation usually have the deciding voice.

According to Rasmussen, Tuareg society exhibits a blend of pre-Islamic and Islamic practices. Other, apparently newer customs include the practice of close-cousin endogamous marriages and polygyny in conformity with Islamic tenets.

Polygyny, which has been witnessed among Tuareg chiefs and Islamic scholars, is in turn thought to be contrary to the pre-Islamic monogamous tradition of the nomadic Tuareg.

Tuareg society has featured caste hierarchies within each clan and political confederation. Traditionally, Tuareg society is hierarchical, with nobility and vassals.

The linguist Karl-Gottfried Prasse indicates that the nobles constitute the highest caste. They have also collected tribute from their vassals.

This warrior nobility has traditionally married within their caste, not to individuals in strata below their own. The vassal-herdsmen are the second free strata within Tuareg society, occupying a position just below that of the nobles.

They pastured and tended their own herds as well those owned by the nobles of the confederation. A semi-noble strata of the Tuareg people has been the endogamous religious clerics, the marabouts Tuareg: Ineslemen , a loan word that means Muslim in Arabic.

In Niger and Mali, where the largest Tuareg populations are found, the artisan castes were attached as clients to a family of nobles or vassals, and carried messages over distances for their patron family.

They also are the ones who traditionally sacrifice animals during Islamic festivals. These social strata, like caste systems found in many parts of West Africa, included singers, musicians and story tellers of the Tuareg, who kept their oral traditions.

One theory posits a Jewish derivation, a proposal that Prasse calls "a much vexed question". According to Rasmussen, the Tuareg castes are not only hierarchical, as each caste differs in mutual perception, food and eating behaviors.

For example, she relates an explanation by a smith on why there is endogamy among Tuareg castes in Niger.

The smith explained, "nobles are like rice, smiths are like millet, slaves are like corn". In the Tuareg areas of Algeria, a distinct tenant-peasant strata lives around oases known as izeggaghan or hartani in Arabic.

The peasants tilled these fields, whose output they gave to the nobles after keeping a fifth part of the produce. The peasants' origins are also unclear.

One theory postulates that they are descendants of ancient people who lived in the Sahara before they were dominated by invading groups.

Some speak a Songhay dialect along with Tuareg and Arabic. In contemporary times, these peasant strata have blended in with freed black slaves and farm arable lands together.

The Tuareg confederations acquired slaves as well as tribute paying states by conducting raids on communities to their south in West Africa.

According to the ethnographer Johannes Nicolaisen , the Ikelan are of assimilated Nilotic origin rather than of Berber heritage like the ethnic Tuareg.

They often live in communities separated from other castes. The slaves of the Tuareg were generally of Sub-Saharan African heritage Nilo-Saharan or Niger-Congo ethno-linguistic origins and were captured during raids.

The word ikelan itself means "to be black", [64] an allusion to most of the slaves. According to the historian Starratt , the Tuareg evolved a system of slavery that was highly differentiated.

They established strata among their slaves, which determined rules as to the slave's expected behavior, marriageability, inheritance rights if any, and occupation.

When French colonial governments were established, they stopped acquisition of new slaves and slave trading in markets, but they did not remove or free domestic slaves from the Tuareg owners who had acquired their slaves before the French rule started.

According to Bernus , Brusberg and Mortimore , French colonial interests in the Tuareg region were primarily economic, with no intention of ending the slave-owning institution.

In , a series of mass desertions of Tuareg slaves and bonded communities began in Nioro and later in Menaka , quickly spreading along the Niger River valley.

While post-independence states have sought to outlaw slavery, results have been mixed. Certain Tuareg communities still uphold the institution.

The Tuareg social stratification involving noble, clerical and artisanal castes likely emerged after the 10th century, as a corollary of the rising slavery system.

Archaeological work by Rod McIntosh and Susan Keech McIntosh indicates that long-distance trade and specialized economies existed in the Western Sudan at an early date.

During the 9th and 10th centuries, Berbers and Arabs built upon these pre-existing trade routes and quickly developed trans-Saharan and sub-Saharan transport networks.

The successive local Muslim kingdoms developed increasing sophistication as states, their martial capacity, slave raiding, holding and trading systems.

Among these Islamic states were the Ghana Empire 11th century , the Mali Empire 13th and 14th centuries , and the Songhay Empire 16th century.

Tuareg culture is largely matrilineal. Other distinctive aspects of Tuareg culture include clothing, food, language, religion, arts, astronomy, nomadic architecture, traditional weapons, music, films, games, and economic activities.

In Tuareg society women do not traditionally wear the veil , whereas men do. The men's facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits.

It may have related instrumentally from the need for protection from the harsh desert sands as well. It is a firmly established tradition, as is the wearing of amulets containing sacred objects and, recently, verses from the Qur'an.

Taking on the veil is associated with the rite of passage to manhood; men begin wearing a veil when they reach maturity. The veil usually conceals their face, excluding their eyes and the top of the nose.

The Tuareg are sometimes called the "Blue People" because the indigo pigment in the cloth of their traditional robes and turbans stained their skin dark blue.

Taguella is a flatbread made from wheat flour and cooked on a charcoal fire; the flat disk-shaped bread is buried under the hot sand. The bread is broken into small pieces and eaten with a meat sauce.

Millet porridge called a cink or a liwa is a staple much like ugali and fufu. Millet is boiled with water to make a pap and eaten with milk or a heavy sauce.

Common dairy foods are goat's and camel's milk called akh , as well as cheese ta komart and Tona a thick yogurt made from them.

Eghajira is a beverage drunk with a ladle. It is made by pounding millet, goat cheese , dates , milk and sugar and is served on festivals. A popular tea called "atai" or "ashahi" is made from Gunpowder Green Tea mixed with sugar.

After steeping, it is poured three times in and out of the teapot over the tea, mint and sugar and served by pouring from a height of over a foot into small tea glasses with a froth on top.

The Tuareg natively speak the Tuareg languages. A dialect cluster, it belongs to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. French missionary Charles de Foucauld compiled a dictionary of the Tuareg.

Much Tuareg art is in the form of jewelry , leather and metal saddle decorations called trik , and finely crafted swords.

The Inadan community makes traditional handicrafts. Among their products are tanaghilt or zakkat the ' Agadez Cross ' or 'Croix d'Agadez' ; the Tuareg sword Takoba , many gold and silver-made necklaces called 'Takaza'; and earrings called 'Tizabaten'.

Pilgrimage boxes have intricate iron and brass decorations, and are used for carrying items. The clear desert skies allowed the Tuareg to be keen observers.

Tuareg celestial objects include:. While living quarters are progressively changing to adapt to a more sedentary lifestyle, Tuareg groups are well known for their nomadic architecture tents.

There are several documented styles, some covered with animal skin, some with mats. The style tends to vary by location or subgroup.

Current documentation suggests a negotiation of common practice in which a woman's tent is set up in the courtyard of her husband's house.

An old legend says the Tuareg once lived in grottoes, akazam , and they lived in foliage beds on the top acacia trees, tasagesaget.

Other kinds of traditional housing include: [ citation needed ] ahaket Tuareg goatskin red tent , tafala a shade made of millet sticks , akarban also called takabart temporary hut for winter , ategham summer hut , taghazamt adobe house for long stay , and ahaket a dome-shaped house made of mats for the dry season and square shaped roof with holes to prevent hot air.

It was curated by Tom Seligman, director of the center. He had first spent time with the Tuareg in when he traveled through the Sahara after serving in the Peace Corps.

The exhibition included crafted and adorned functional objects such as camel saddles, tents, bags, swords, amulets, cushions, dresses, earrings, spoons and drums.

Throughout history, the Tuareg were renowned and respected warriors. Their decline as a military might came with the introduction of firearms, weapons which the Tuareg did not possess.

The Tuareg warrior equipment consisted of a takoba sword , allagh lance and aghar shield made of antelope hide.

Traditional Tuareg music has two major components: the monochord violin anzad played often during night parties and a small tambour covered with goatskin called tende , performed during camel and horse races, and other festivities.

Traditional songs called Asak and Tisiway poems are sung by women and men during feasts and social occasions. Another popular Tuareg musical genre is takamba , characteristic for its Afro percussions.

In the s rebel fighters founded Tinariwen , a Tuareg band that fuses electric guitars and indigenous musical styles. Tinariwen is one of the best known and authentic Tuareg bands.

Especially in areas that were cut off during the Tuareg rebellion e. Tuareg guitar groups that followed in their path include Group Inerane and Group Bombino.

The Niger-based band Etran Finatawa combines Tuareg and Wodaabe members, playing a combination of traditional instruments and electric guitars. Many music groups emerged after the s cultural revival.

The Desert Festival in Mali's Timbuktu provides one opportunity to see Tuareg culture and dance and hear their music.

Other festivals include:. Tuareg are distinguished in their native language as the Imouhar , meaning the free people [ citation needed ] ; the overlap of meaning has increased local cultural nationalism.

Many Tuareg today are either settled agriculturalists or nomadic cattle breeders, though there are also blacksmiths and caravan leaders.

The Tuareg are a pastoral people, having an economy based on livestock breeding, trading, and agriculture. Since Prehistoric times Tuareg peoples: the Garamantes have been organising caravans for trading across the Sahara desert.

These caravans used first oxen, horses and later camels as a means of transportation, here different types of caravans:. A contemporary variant is occurring in northern Niger, in a traditionally Tuareg territory that comprises most of the uranium-rich land of the country.

The central government in Niamey has shown itself unwilling to cede control of the highly profitable mining to indigenous clans. The French government has independently tried to defend a French firm, Areva, established in Niger for fifty years and now mining the massive Imouraren deposit.

Additional complaints against Areva are that it is: " It is undoubtedly an ecological catastrophe". During —, U. Some of these trainees are reported to have fought in the rebellion within the MNJ.

The goal of these Tuareg appears to be economic and political control of ancestral lands, rather than operating from religious and political ideologies.

Despite the Sahara's erratic and unpredictable rainfall patterns, the Tuareg have managed to survive in the hostile desert environment for centuries.

Over recent years however, depletion of water by the uranium exploitation process combined with the effects of climate change are threatening their ability to subsist.

Uranium mining has diminished and degraded Tuareg grazing lands. Not only does the mining industry produce radioactive waste that can contaminate crucial sources of ground water resulting in cancer, stillbirths, and genetic defects but it also uses up huge quantities of water in a region where water is already scarce.

This is exacerbated by the increased rate of desertification thought to be the result of global warming. The conventional Tuareg dwelling is a tent of red-dyed skin sometimes replaced in the later 20th century with plastic.

Traditional weapons include two-edged swords, sheathed daggers, iron lances, and leather shields. Adult males traditionally wore a blue veil in the presence of women, strangers, and in-laws, but that practice began to be abandoned with urbanization.

The Tuareg have preserved a peculiar script tifinagh related to that used by ancient Libyans. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.

Thank you for your feedback. Many local inhabitants, including the parents and relatives of Roman Abramovich , were exiled to Siberia during the Soviet occupation in This saved the family from the Holocaust.

In the autumn of , the German occupation ended with the Soviets replacing them with a renewed occupation lasting until During the soviet occupation the town was rebuilt and grew very rapidly, although the pre-war old town architecture was not preserved.

Only some old buildings of the town centre survived to this day. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

City in Samogitia, Lithuania. Coat of arms. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Hidden categories: CS1 Lithuanian-language sources lt Articles with short description Coordinates on Wikidata Articles with hAudio microformats Pages including recorded pronunciations Articles containing Yiddish-language text Articles containing Russian-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with Lithuanian-language sources lt.

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